It’s finally Spring in Ohio! Trees are blooming, and it’s warm enough for walking and playing outside. Our daughter learned to ride a bike without training wheels this week and she’s been non-stop asking to go outside. Balance bikes are amazing, she literally tried the real bike for 1 day before she got it after using the balance bike the last few years.
This is the final post in my Probiotic Series at least for now! If you haven’t checked out the other post, please do, it starts with Probiotics 101, then Probiotic FAQ: Part 1 . And now on to Part 2! I also have a post over on my friend Lindsey Elmore’s site you should read as well. Thanks again to my interns Vineeta Rao and Ruth Gunti who worked on this series with me.
I hope these post help explain some of the basics about probiotics and the answer your questions, if you have further questions. Don’t hesitate to reach out.
If I have histamine intolerance, should I avoid certain strains? If so which ones?
Histamine intolerance is a condition in which the body has imbalanced levels of histamine. In this state, through the body’s own metabolic processes or consumption of histamine-rich foods, the body has too much histamine and may react to certain food with allergic-like symptoms such as hives, skin rashes, and other digestive symptoms.1 Gut bacteria are involved in both producing and degrading histamine, and having too many histamine-producing bacteria or too little histamine-degrading bacteria may cause elevated histamine levels.2,3 Therefore, it is crucial to select a probiotic that contributes to the proper balance of histamine in the body.
If you have histamine intolerance, it is important to avoid certain species of histamine-producing bacteria when selecting a probiotic. Those that should be avoided are Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus.3
In contrast, certain probiotics appear to aid in relieving the imbalances found with histamine intolerance. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and c705 have been observed to inhibit the effect of histamine in the body.4 Additionally, in vitro studies suggest that bifidobacterium lactis and lactobacillus plantarum species promote histamine breakdown. 5,6
Should I take a probiotic while also taking an antibiotic? If so which one, and for how long?
Although clinicians have generally supported using probiotics with an antibiotic course, this is an area of controversy as new studies suggest that probiotics may interrupt the body’s natural process of restoring the bacterial balance in the gut. There are many studies that support using probiotics to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and among the tested species S. boulardii has specifically been shown to be effective.7 Studies have also shown that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the strain contained in the Culturelle probiotic, appears and effective to prevent antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) in an outpatient setting.8 The recommended dose is 107 to 1010 colony-forming units (CFU) per capsule (taken one to 3 times daily) as that is what has been studied; duration of therapy can be 1-3 weeks or the entire length of time that the patient is on antibiotics.9 For reference, Metagenics “UltraFlora LGG” and Culturelle “Digestive Health” products contains 1010 CFU per dose, and Culturelle “Kids” product contains 109 CFU per dose, making these products good choices for AAD.10 It is generally recommended to take probiotics for a couple months after therapy and consuming fermented foods. Overall it is said that “probiotics appear to be effective in preventing and treating AAD in children and adults receiving a wide variety of antibiotics.” 8-10
However, there is emerging research that suggests that probiotics may actually delay spontaneous recovery of the microorganisms in the gut, or the “gut microbiome.” A recent study compared spontaneous gut recovery to probiotic use in humans receiving a broad-spectrum antibiotic course. By performing endoscopies and examining the stool from the patients before and after receiving antibiotics, normal genetic expression of bacteria in the gut was delayed by up to 5 months in the probiotic group versus a matter of weeks in the group allowed to spontaneously recover.11,12 The in vitro portion of the study suggested that Lactobacillus acidophilus may inhibit the native gut microbiome.11 While this study cautions against the preventative use of probiotics with an antibiotic course, further studies to shed light on the benefit or harm of probiotics are needed to come to a clear conclusion.12
In the meantime, it may be wise to avoid probiotics with Lactobacillus acidophilus when taking an antibiotic course. One of the challenges as a provider recommending probiotics is that this was just 1-2 studies in the midst of all the literature and didn’t not look at saccharomyces boulardii and its effect, therefore it really just raises questions for future research and gives us a pause to our practice of using blanket probiotics for everyone on antibiotics habit.
If I have dysbiosis or Small intestinal bacterial Overgrowth, should I avoid pre-biotics or certain probiotic strains?
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) typically refers to a form of dysbiosis (imbalance of bacteria on the body) attributed to an excessive overgrowth or changes in types of bacteria in the small-intestine.13,,14 While the small intestine is not sterile, it has far fewer bacteria than the large intestine. Thus, SIBO may result from the specific bacteria that normally grows in the large intestine growing inappropriately in the small intestine.13,14 Other causes of SIBO include multiple courses of antibiotics and impaired defense mechanisms such as low stomach acid, which may be caused by use of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs). While the definition is constantly changing and expanding to include other forms of dysbiosis, SIBO is typically characterized by non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, fatigue, and weakness and might be treated with an antibiotic course.13,14
There are several studies that actually support the use of probiotics for this disorder.15 However, at the moment there is little consensus across the studies as to which probiotics species and strains will provide benefit for SIBO. Regardless of the species, the theoretical concern with using probiotics in SIBO even if the bacteria added to the gut is “good” bacteria, too much bacteria often produces symptoms of bloating and gas, which would worsen symptoms. In SIBO, patients often have an overgrowth of D-lactate-producing bacteria, so it may be best to avoid probiotics that also produce D-lactate such as Lactobacillus acidophilus.16
In the past it has also been generally recommended that one avoid the use of prebiotics until SIBO symptoms under control. Currently, studies that challenge this notion are frequently emerging, and in time, we may see a demonstrable benefit of certain probiotics and prebiotics in SIBO.16 However, until studies show which species and strains relieve rather than aggravate SIBO symptoms, it is likely best to avoid prebiotics and probiotics that produce D-lactate. In general, I recommend treating the overgrowth before working on replacing the flora with probiotics. Once those probiotics are tolerated, consider adding prebiotics to support healthy growth of gut flora along with other measures to prevent SIBO recurrence. Specifically, Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a prebiotic that has been shown to treat SIBO when administered alongside the antibiotic rifaximin better than rifaximin alone.17 Thus, this product could be a good option for encouraging healthy gut flora growth.
That’s a wrap. As always you can find great probiotic options on my FullScript Store or at YoungLiving. Feel free to message me if you have specific questions. We have so much science but we are still not quite a place were we absolutely know which probiotic product is going to work for each person. We are moving closer to that each day.
- Maintz L, Novak N.Histamine and histamine intolerance.Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1185-96.
- Pugin B, Barcik W, Westermann P, et al. A wide diversity of bacteria from the human gut produces and degrades biogenic amines. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2017;28(1):1353881.
- What causes Histamine Intolerance. Facts vs Fitness. https://factvsfitness.com/probiotics-histamine-intolerance/. Updated July 27, 2017. Accessed January 23, 2019.
- Oksaharju A, Kankainen M, Kekkonen RA, et al. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus downregulates FCER1 and HRH4 expression in human mast cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(6):750-9.
- Mokhtar S., Mostafa G, Taha R. et al. Effect of different starter cultures on the biogenic amines production as a critical control point in fresh fermented sausages. Eur Food Res Technol. 2012;235(3): 527-535.
- Capozzi V, Russo P, Ladero V, et al. Biogenic Amines Degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum: Toward a Potential Application in Wine. Front Microbiol. 2012; 3: 122.
- Mcfarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(18):2202-22.
- Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the Prevention of
Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017 Oct 12;6(4).
- Rodgers B, Kirley K, Mounsey A. PURLs: prescribing an antibiotic? Pair it with probiotics. J Fam Pract. 2013;62(3):148-50.
- Antibiotic Use & Associated Diarrhoea Prevention. Probiotic Advisor. https://www.probioticadvisor.com/ Accessed February 9, 2019.
- Suez J, Zmora N, Zilberman-Schapira G, et al. Post-Antibiotic Gut Mucosal Microbiome Reconstitution Is Impaired by Probiotics and Improved by Autologous FMT. Cell. 2018;174(6):1406-1423.
- Kresser C. RHR: What the Latest Research Says about Probiotics, with Lucy Mailing. https://chriskresser.com/what-the-latest-research-says-about-probiotics-with-lucy-mailing/ Updated November 4, 2018. Accessed February 9, 2019.
- Drake LE, Guilliams TG. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO): diagnostic challenges and functional solutions. Point Institute. 2018;14(2)1-15.
- Kresser C. What Causes SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and Why It’s So Hard To Treat. https://chriskresser.com/sibo-what-causes-it-and-why-its-so-hard-to-treat/ Updated November 4, 2014. Accessed February 9, 2019.
- Chen WC, Quigley EM. Probiotics, prebiotics & synbiotics in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: opening up a new therapeutic horizon!. Indian J Med Res. 2014;140(5):582-4.
- Kresser C. RHR: Treating SIBO, Cold Thermogenesis, and When to Take Probiotics. https://chriskresser.com/treating-sibo-cold-thermogenisis-and-when-to-take-probiotics/. Updated March 12, 2013. Accessed February 9, 2019.
- Furnari M, Parodi A, Gemignani L, et al. Clinical trial: the combination
of rifaximin with partially hydrolysed guar gum is more effective than rifaximin alone in eradicating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Aliment Pharmacy Ther. 2010;32(8):1000-6.